KLEOS Issue 2, 2019 out now!
By Mattia D’Acri
In 510 BC the city of Sybaris, an ancient Achaean colony founded in 720/710 BC, was destroyed by the city of Kroton through the deviation of the Crathis riverbed, according to Strabo. Some seven decades later, in 444 BC, the same site saw the foundation of the Panhellenic colony of Thurii, situated just above the remains of the ancient settlement. While the centuries preceding the destruction of Sybaris and following the foundation of Thurii are widely documented both archaeologically and historically, research on the intermediate period between the lives of the two cities has been based almost entirely on historical and numismatic sources, without serious reference to the regional archaeological data. During this seventy year period, contrary to the prevailing hypothesis, life in Sybaris and its territory continued, as testified by archaeological evidence from the city and its chora. This paper focuses on this particular historical period, drawing on that evidence, especially ceramics and related contexts, and provides an initial interpretation of the data in its regional context, re-establishing a forgotten connection between the Achaean colony and its Panhellenic successor.
Mattia D’Acri is a graduate of the Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia – Matera and is currently a PhD student in the Classical Archaeology program at the University of Missouri-Columbia. His main interest is the study of ceramics, with particular focus on the Protohistoric and Archaic periods in central-southern Italy. He has done fieldwork at Rome (S. Omobono; Regia), Gabii, Francavilla Marittima and many others. Moreover he published different papers on various aspects, especially of the pottery assemblages recovered from these sites
By Sander Egberink
Ever since Paul Zanker published his book ‘Forum Augustum’ in 1968, debate has existed on the Forum of Augustus as a ‘propaganda-forum’. In this article a novel approach is suggested to add to this debate by borrowing the notion of ‘appropriation’ from culture history. In order to make it a suitable approach for the study of ancient monuments, the three questions of how, why and who serve as analytical tools to study the process of appropriation. The case under study is the group of Republican statues at the forum, more specifically the statue of Pompeius Magnus. The result of the analysis is twofold: 1) appropriation is a useful notion for the study of monuments where the past played a pivotal role; 2) psychological preparations, selection critera and deliberate alterations, and the design of comparison for visitors were all highly relevant in the appropriation of the Republican past in the Forum Augustum.
Sander Egberink is a bachelor student of history at the University of Amsterdam. He specialises in early Roman Imperial history and the role of the Roman past in Fascist Italy. He views history through a cultural lens. He spent half a year in Bologna with an Erasmus grant where he developed his Italian language skills and took a course with the KNIR on nationhood. He plans to start a researchmaster in Ancient History at the UvA the next academic year.
By Eline Verburg
This paper critically re-evaluates the publication history of the Tomba Campana in Veii from its discovery until today. The Tomba Campana is of great value for Italian archaeology because of its unique and early wall paintings and rich grave goods. However, its modern post-excavation history is turbulent and controversial. The aim of this paper is to give a short overview of the events surrounding the discovery of the tomb and its contents both during and after the discovery, in order to add new elements to the line of interpretation of F. Roncalli, F. Delpino, et.al. The introduction will discuss the publications from the 19th and 20th centuries. Following this introduction, a short biography will be given about the discoverer, Giovanni Pietro Campana. Subsequently, the contents of the tomb will be discussed. Lastly the paper will contextualise the ‘discovery’ within the context of how antiquarians dealt with authenticity in the field of archaeology in the early 19th century, the period in which the tomb was discovered.
During her Bachelor in Archaeology & Prehistory at the University of Amsterdam Eline Verburg (1993) became fascinated by the archaeology of Pre-Roman Italy, the Etruscan culture in specific. After having finished a Minor in Museumstudies, she studied one year at the oldest University of Europe, the Università di Bologna, where she attended lectures in Etruscology. In January 2018 she completed her Research Master in Archaeology with a thesis titled: ‘New Research on an Old ‘Discovery’: the Tomba Campana.
By Martine Diepenbroek
Very early-on in Greek history mountaintops were already used as watch-towers and signalling stations from which messages could be sent over long distances by fire signals. In these earliest examples it was only possible to send one prearranged message, something that was often not sufficient in case communicating parties needed to communicate on urgent matters. The 4th-century BC military author Aeneas Tacticus accordingly invented a method for fire signalling, whereby a series of messages could be sent related to events that often occur in warfare. The system might have been used as a cryptographic device. Due to errors in Aeneas’ system, Polybius improved another system based on the same principles, which in turn formed the basis for the modern ‘Polybius square’, used by the Germans for their ADFGX- and ADFGVX-ciphers: secret cipher systems used in the First World War. There is no clear evidence linking Aeneas’ fire signalling method directly to the German ciphers. However, it will be shown that Polybius used Aeneas’ system in his own fire signalling method. Polybius’ method in turn impacted the development of the Polybius square and its use in the ADFGX and ADFGVX ciphers. By analysing the ancient history of Polybius’ method for fire signalling and the merits of applying this to the use of the square in the German ciphers, it will be shown how an ancient fire signalling method inspired modern ciphers.
Martine Diepenbroek is a Dutch PhD student at the University of Bristol (UK). In her PhD thesis she works on the role of ancient cryptography and steganography in confidential correspondence in Greco-Roman warfare. A key figure in this field was the 4th-century BC military author Aeneas Tacticus. In her thesis she thoroughly analyses Aeneas’ work ‘How to Survive Under Siege’, and compares this to other ancient sources on cryptography and steganography.
- ARCHON: a platform for Dutch academic archaeology
- Congress review: Women and Pilgrimage in the Ancient and Pre-Modern World
- Discussion article: I Know What You Did Last Summer